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How Drugs are distributed throughout your body once administered….

Drug Administration and Distribution

Drugs can enter the body a variety of ways. The easiest way to get a drug into the bloodstream is to inject it directly into a vein. If a drug is ingested by mouth, smoked, or snorted, it must pass several barriers before reaching the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the drugs can be distributed throughout the body.

The route that drugs take follows the circulatory path of the blood. The first pass throughout the body depends on the actual route of administration. Drugs that are smoked go directly with the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. Then they leave the heart through the aorta, the major artery, to travel to the rest of the body. If drugs are injected or snorted, they enter the venous system and get returned to the heart with de-oxygenated blood, before traveling to the lungs and then back to the heart. If a drug is ingested orally, it diffuses into capillaries in the stomach and small intestine that connect to blood vessels that go directly to the liver. So as drugs leave the gut they travel to the liver first (this is called the portal circulation). In the liver, some of the drug is metabolized as it passes through (see discussion of metabolism below).

After the drug leaves the liver, it travels through the venous system to the heart, then to the lungs and finally back to the heart to be distributed throughout the rest of the body via the arterial system. The circulatory system is a very efficient way to distribute drugs throughout the body. As described above, drugs leave the heart by way of the aorta. This main artery branches into large arteries as they travel to various organs. As arteries enter organs, they branch into arterioles, which branch into even smaller units, the capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest form of blood vessels and are very numerous. In fact they are able to deliver nutrients such as oxygen and glucose to every cell in the body. [They also pick up waste such as carbon dioxide and metabolic products.]

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Magic, coffee and addiction equals..?

From wisdom…

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Addictive Substances

Types of addictive substances

  1. Stimulants-

(cocaine, crack, amphetamines) give a temporary

illusion of enhanced power and energy. As the initial

elevation of mood fades, depression and other serious

medical problems may emerge, including heart attacks,

seizures, strokes, and violent, erratic, anxious, or paranoid

behavior.

2. Cocaine use during pregnancy may result in miscarriage,

stillbirth, or low birth–weight babies who may be drug-

dependent and may later develop behavioral or learning

difficulties. Long-term amphetamine abuse can result in

psychosis with symptoms that include paranoid delusions

and hallucinations.

HEROIN

Heroin is an opioid drug in the same class as medications like

morphine. It can be injected with a needle or inhaled. Heroin

produces an intense feeling of pleasure when a person first

begins to use it. Occasional use of heroin often progresses to

dependence or addiction. Skipping use of heroin for an

addicted person can lead to significant withdrawal symptoms

such as chills, sweating, runny nose and eyes, abdominal

cramps, muscle pains, insomnia, nausea, and diarrhea.

Heroin use during pregnancy may result in miscarriage,

stillbirth, premature delivery, or drug-dependent babies.

Injecting heroin introduces substances into their

bloodstream, that can result in severe damage to the heart,

lungs, and brain. In addition, needle sharing spreads

diseases—this is the leading cause of all new HIV and

hepatitis cases.

Opiate abuse can bring about significant and long-lasting

chemical changes in the brain.These changes cause a

person to experience intense cravings and negative

emotions when they try to stop. Several medications can be

used to treat heroin addiction including buprenorphine,

methadone and naltrexone.

4. HALLUCINOGENS

Hallucinogens are drugs such as LSD (acid) or designer

drugs (ecstasy) that are taken orally and cause hallucinations

and feelings of euphoria. Dangers from LSD include stressful

flashbacks—re-experiencing the hallucinations despite not

having taken the drug again, sometimes even years later.

Excessive use of ecstasy, combined with strenuous physical

activity, can lead to death from dehydration or an

exceptionally high fever.

Addiction is a serious illness and can ruin health, finances,

relationships, and careers.The abuse of drugs and alcohol

is a leading cause of preventable illnesses and premature

death in our society.The importance of substance abuse

treatment cannot be overstated, and fortunately many

effective treatments are available.

Consequences of Use

5. ALCOHOL

Most adults are familiar with alcohol and its effects.

Alcohol is a legal drug that can produce pleasant effects

with lower amounts, but that can produce dangerous

effects with higher amounts. People often drink alcohol

during social occasions. Unfortunately, the reckless

behavior that often results from excessive drinking is a

leading cause of serious injury and accidental death.

Alcoholism is an illness in which a person loses the

ability to control their drinking, and it is often associated

with the development of problems in work, relationships,

and health. It is an illness that tends to run in families and

is often associated with depression. Alcoholism can have

devastating effects on health, including serious liver

damage, greater risk of heart disease, impotence, infertility,

and premature aging. Alcohol is the most common cause

of preventable birth defects, including fetal alcohol

syndrome.

An alcoholic who needs to drink daily should stop their

use of alcohol under the supervision of a physician, and

may need medication during their withdrawal.There are

medications that can help reduce the compelling desire to

drink alcohol.Treatment is more successful early in the

development of alcoholism than when the illness has been

allowed to progress for years.

6. MARIJUANA

Marijuana is the most widespread and frequently used

illicit drug and is associated with short-term memory loss,

accelerated heartbeat, increased blood pressure, difficulty

with concentrating and processing information, lapses in

judgment, and problems with perception and motor skills.

Years of marijuana use can lead to a loss of ambition

and an inability to carry out long-term plans or to function

effectively.

7. INHALANTS

Inhalants are breathable chemicals like glue, paint thinner,

lighter fluid.They are commonly abused by teenagers

because they are easy to obtain and because they

produce mind-altering effects when sniffed or “huffed.”

These chemicals reach the bloodstream very quickly and

can be deadly. High concentrations of inhalant fumes can

cause heart failure or suffocation and long-term abuse can

cause permanent damage to the nervous system.

8. SEDATIVES

Sedatives are highly effective medications prescribed by

physicians to relieve anxiety and to promote sleep.

Harmful effects can occur when taken in excess or without

a physician’s supervision. Combining sedatives with

alcohol or other drugs greatly increases the likelihood of

death by overdose. Women who abuse sedatives during

pregnancy may deliver babies with birth defects who also

may be physically dependent on drugs.

9. NICOTINE

Nicotine in tobacco products has addictive properties

similar in severity to those of heroin. Quitting is difficult

because of the unpleasantness of withdrawal, which

involves feelings of irritability, frustration, anger, anxiety,

insomnia, and depression. Continued smoking may lead to

far more dire circumstances, including lung cancer, heart

attacks, emphysema, high blood pressure, and ulcers.

Treatment

The first step on the road to recovery is recognition of the

problem, but often this process is complicated by a lack of

understanding about substance abuse and addiction or

denial. In these cases, the intervention of concerned

friends and family often prompts treatment.

Addiction is a chronic illness like heart disease, high

cholesterol or high blood pressure. People with these

chronic diseases are prone to relapse. Because substance

abuse affects many aspects of a person’s life, multiple

forms of treatment are often required. For most, a

combination of medication and individual or group therapy

is most effective. Medications are used to control drug

cravings and relieve severe symptoms of withdrawal.

Therapy can help addicted individuals understand their addiction.

Introducing our Newsletters:

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Click on the Link to read our 1st Newsletter

The Link below will redirect you to a Read Only version of this document, the original is in Word Format, and I don’t know if it can be converted or not to pdf file, so please click the link below and show your support in my mission and cause. This newsletter is completely made up by myself, I am the original Author, and am also not a medical professional…..ClickBlueLinkBelow……

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Relapse prevention for the stressful holiday season, how to make it to 2019 SOBER!

Using an Addiction Recovery Toolbox gives you extra defense against relapse. Here’s what you need to do…

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Asks’s Madmom05: Visit my Facebook pg please and join me in my recovery and help support my mission to lead others to recovery, stop addiction before it starts through education, and getting the truth out there. I need my countries support here, please? I can’t do it alone, just like I couldn’t do recovery alone. Help me, help others and join my cause!

WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM A TOOLBOX?

Whether you are thinking about sobriety, are in the early stages of it, or are well into it, you can benefit from having a Toolbox. Actually, if you are human you can benefit from a Toolbox.

If you are still drinking/drugging/whatevering, you can start incorporating these things NOW. By doing this, you effectively soften the blow when you remove the harmful substance. Adding in healthy coping tools before the quit creates new habits, new synapses in the brain, new circuitry. You effectively train yourself to seek the healthy coping mechanism/tool, and as you move through quitting the bad stuff, your body has learned other ways to self-soothe/balance/cope.

#Madmom05realRecovery-A personal note:
The most used “Tool” that I have in my own Addiction Recovery Toolbox, is for times of acute and sudden stress, days in which im feeling particularly depressed or am so close to giving in, actually can be accessed through anyone’s YouTube app! I made a #motivationinRecovery playlist and added all my favorite speeches or talks, or songs that motivate me to keep going and to not give up. I listen to them and slowly but surely my thinking eventually begins to change and I get that boost of confidence I need to realize that not only was I triggered, but I can name what triggered me, note any red flag thoughts or actions that I had prior to that and begin to plan ways to better avoid that in the future, even potentially training myself to catch the red flags, and then immediately redirect myself towards something that effectively holds my attention and mind away from the problem/problems that lead me to thinking about giving up my sobriety. I’m not near there as of yet, but with practice I know I can be my own defense and win in the long as long as I prepare for absolutely anything that could cause me to fail.

#Recoveryrising. #SoberNation

Thank you to all my followers, readers, supporters, friends and family,

Madmom05

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