How Drugs are distributed throughout your body once administered….

Drug Administration and Distribution

Drugs can enter the body a variety of ways. The easiest way to get a drug into the bloodstream is to inject it directly into a vein. If a drug is ingested by mouth, smoked, or snorted, it must pass several barriers before reaching the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the drugs can be distributed throughout the body.

The route that drugs take follows the circulatory path of the blood. The first pass throughout the body depends on the actual route of administration. Drugs that are smoked go directly with the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. Then they leave the heart through the aorta, the major artery, to travel to the rest of the body. If drugs are injected or snorted, they enter the venous system and get returned to the heart with de-oxygenated blood, before traveling to the lungs and then back to the heart. If a drug is ingested orally, it diffuses into capillaries in the stomach and small intestine that connect to blood vessels that go directly to the liver. So as drugs leave the gut they travel to the liver first (this is called the portal circulation). In the liver, some of the drug is metabolized as it passes through (see discussion of metabolism below).

After the drug leaves the liver, it travels through the venous system to the heart, then to the lungs and finally back to the heart to be distributed throughout the rest of the body via the arterial system. The circulatory system is a very efficient way to distribute drugs throughout the body. As described above, drugs leave the heart by way of the aorta. This main artery branches into large arteries as they travel to various organs. As arteries enter organs, they branch into arterioles, which branch into even smaller units, the capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest form of blood vessels and are very numerous. In fact they are able to deliver nutrients such as oxygen and glucose to every cell in the body. [They also pick up waste such as carbon dioxide and metabolic products.]

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Types of Addiction Treatment programs:

Most common treatment options for addiction:
Research studies on addiction treatment typically have classified programs into several general types or modalities. Treatment approaches and individual programs continue to evolve and diversify, and many programs today do not fit neatly into traditional drug addiction treatment classifications.
Most, however, start with detoxification and medically managed withdrawal, often considered the first stage of treatment. Detoxification, the process by which the body clears itself of drugs, is designed to manage the acute and potentially dangerous physiological effects of stopping drug use. As stated previously, detoxification alone does not address the psychological, social, and behavioral problems associated with addiction and therefore does not typically produce lasting behavioral changes necessary for recovery. Detoxification should thus be followed by a formal assessment and referral to drug addiction treatment.
Because it is often accompanied by unpleasant and potentially fatal side effects stemming from withdrawal, detoxification is often managed with medications administered by a physician in an inpatient or outpatient setting; therefore, it is referred to as “medically managed withdrawal.” Medications are available to assist in the withdrawal from opioids, benzodiazepines, alcohol, nicotine, barbiturates, and other sedatives.

Most common treatment programs for addiction

  1. Long-Term Residential Treatment
    Long-term residential treatment provides care 24 hours a day, generally in non-hospital settings. The best-known residential treatment model is the therapeutic community (TC), with planned lengths of stay of between 6 and 12 months. TCs focus on the “resocialization” of the individual and use the program’s entire community—including other residents, staff, and the social context—as active components of treatment. Addiction is viewed in the context of an individual’s social and psychological deficits, and treatment focuses on developing personal accountability and responsibility as well as socially productive lives. Treatment is highly structured and can be confrontational at times, with activities designed to help residents examine damaging beliefs, self-concepts, and destructive patterns of behavior and adopt new, more harmonious and constructive ways to interact with others. Many TCs offer comprehensive services, which can include employment training and other support services, onsite. Research shows that TCs can be modified to treat individuals with special needs, including adolescents, women, homeless individuals, people with severe mental disorders, and individuals in the criminal justice system.
  2. Short-Term Residential Treatment
    Short-term residential programs provide intensive but relatively brief treatment based on a modified 12-step approach. These programs were originally designed to treat alcohol problems, but during the cocaine epidemic of the mid-1980s, many began to treat other types of substance use disorders. The original residential treatment model consisted of a 3- to 6-week hospital-based inpatient treatment phase followed by extended outpatient therapy and participation in a self-help group, such as AA. Following stays in residential treatment programs, it is important for individuals to remain engaged in outpatient treatment programs and/or aftercare programs. These programs help to reduce the risk of relapse once a patient leaves the residential setting.
  3. Outpatient Treatment Programs
    Outpatient treatment varies in the types and intensity of services offered. Such treatment costs less than residential or inpatient treatment and often is more suitable for people with jobs or extensive social supports. It should be noted, however, that low-intensity programs may offer little more than drug education. Other outpatient models, such as intensive day treatment, can be comparable to residential programs in services and effectiveness, depending on the individual patient’s characteristics and needs. In many outpatient programs, group counseling can be a major component. Some outpatient programs are also designed to treat patients with medical or other mental health problems in addition to their drug disorder.
  4. Individualized Drug Counseling
    Individualized drug counseling not only focuses on reducing or stopping illicit drug or alcohol use; it also addresses related areas of impaired functioning—such as employment stater., illegal activity, and family/social relations—as well as the content and structure of the patient’s recovery program. Through its emphasis on short-term behavioral goals, individualized counseling helps the patient develop coping strategies and tools to abstain from drug use and maintain abstinence. The addiction counselor encourages 12-step participation (at least one or two times per week) and makes referrals for needed supplemental medical, psychiatric, employment, and other services.
  5. Group Counseling
    Many therapeutic settings use group therapy to capitalize on the social reinforcement offered by peer discussion and to help promote drug-free lifestyles. Research has shown that when group therapy either is offered in conjunction with individualized drug counseling or is formatted to reflect the principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy or contingency management, positive outcomes are achieved. Currently, researchers are testing conditions in which group therapy can be standardized and made more community-friendly.

I’m adding on a treatment ad on option to these programs:

Peer Counseling for Addiction

This means, counseling from an individual that has real life experience with addiction, and recovery. Someone who has been where you are, knows what you are experiencing, and even what is going through your thoughts. A person with years in recovery under their belt, has experienced relapses, and knows how to help you because they have been there and have reached a point in recovery in which you desire to achieve and can help you achieve that. As a peer counselor, I can personally say that I am more relentless in keeping my clients on task because I can anticipate their next moves, and how they will react and can lead them through bad days. I take it as a personal failure if a client relapses and we get back up together and push twice as hard to keep our “Lapse” , from becoming a full “Relapse”. This option is better for certain people, not all, but it is certainly beneficial.

I offer ONLINE, with Skype, live video chat sessions and my Skype name is Amy B. Madmom05.

To get more information or schedule a intake session, visit my contact page and get in touch with me. Id be happy to see you ASAP.

Thanks All,

Madmom05

Addictive Substances

Types of addictive substances

  1. Stimulants-

(cocaine, crack, amphetamines) give a temporary

illusion of enhanced power and energy. As the initial

elevation of mood fades, depression and other serious

medical problems may emerge, including heart attacks,

seizures, strokes, and violent, erratic, anxious, or paranoid

behavior.

2. Cocaine use during pregnancy may result in miscarriage,

stillbirth, or low birth–weight babies who may be drug-

dependent and may later develop behavioral or learning

difficulties. Long-term amphetamine abuse can result in

psychosis with symptoms that include paranoid delusions

and hallucinations.

HEROIN

Heroin is an opioid drug in the same class as medications like

morphine. It can be injected with a needle or inhaled. Heroin

produces an intense feeling of pleasure when a person first

begins to use it. Occasional use of heroin often progresses to

dependence or addiction. Skipping use of heroin for an

addicted person can lead to significant withdrawal symptoms

such as chills, sweating, runny nose and eyes, abdominal

cramps, muscle pains, insomnia, nausea, and diarrhea.

Heroin use during pregnancy may result in miscarriage,

stillbirth, premature delivery, or drug-dependent babies.

Injecting heroin introduces substances into their

bloodstream, that can result in severe damage to the heart,

lungs, and brain. In addition, needle sharing spreads

diseases—this is the leading cause of all new HIV and

hepatitis cases.

Opiate abuse can bring about significant and long-lasting

chemical changes in the brain.These changes cause a

person to experience intense cravings and negative

emotions when they try to stop. Several medications can be

used to treat heroin addiction including buprenorphine,

methadone and naltrexone.

4. HALLUCINOGENS

Hallucinogens are drugs such as LSD (acid) or designer

drugs (ecstasy) that are taken orally and cause hallucinations

and feelings of euphoria. Dangers from LSD include stressful

flashbacks—re-experiencing the hallucinations despite not

having taken the drug again, sometimes even years later.

Excessive use of ecstasy, combined with strenuous physical

activity, can lead to death from dehydration or an

exceptionally high fever.

Addiction is a serious illness and can ruin health, finances,

relationships, and careers.The abuse of drugs and alcohol

is a leading cause of preventable illnesses and premature

death in our society.The importance of substance abuse

treatment cannot be overstated, and fortunately many

effective treatments are available.

Consequences of Use

5. ALCOHOL

Most adults are familiar with alcohol and its effects.

Alcohol is a legal drug that can produce pleasant effects

with lower amounts, but that can produce dangerous

effects with higher amounts. People often drink alcohol

during social occasions. Unfortunately, the reckless

behavior that often results from excessive drinking is a

leading cause of serious injury and accidental death.

Alcoholism is an illness in which a person loses the

ability to control their drinking, and it is often associated

with the development of problems in work, relationships,

and health. It is an illness that tends to run in families and

is often associated with depression. Alcoholism can have

devastating effects on health, including serious liver

damage, greater risk of heart disease, impotence, infertility,

and premature aging. Alcohol is the most common cause

of preventable birth defects, including fetal alcohol

syndrome.

An alcoholic who needs to drink daily should stop their

use of alcohol under the supervision of a physician, and

may need medication during their withdrawal.There are

medications that can help reduce the compelling desire to

drink alcohol.Treatment is more successful early in the

development of alcoholism than when the illness has been

allowed to progress for years.

6. MARIJUANA

Marijuana is the most widespread and frequently used

illicit drug and is associated with short-term memory loss,

accelerated heartbeat, increased blood pressure, difficulty

with concentrating and processing information, lapses in

judgment, and problems with perception and motor skills.

Years of marijuana use can lead to a loss of ambition

and an inability to carry out long-term plans or to function

effectively.

7. INHALANTS

Inhalants are breathable chemicals like glue, paint thinner,

lighter fluid.They are commonly abused by teenagers

because they are easy to obtain and because they

produce mind-altering effects when sniffed or “huffed.”

These chemicals reach the bloodstream very quickly and

can be deadly. High concentrations of inhalant fumes can

cause heart failure or suffocation and long-term abuse can

cause permanent damage to the nervous system.

8. SEDATIVES

Sedatives are highly effective medications prescribed by

physicians to relieve anxiety and to promote sleep.

Harmful effects can occur when taken in excess or without

a physician’s supervision. Combining sedatives with

alcohol or other drugs greatly increases the likelihood of

death by overdose. Women who abuse sedatives during

pregnancy may deliver babies with birth defects who also

may be physically dependent on drugs.

9. NICOTINE

Nicotine in tobacco products has addictive properties

similar in severity to those of heroin. Quitting is difficult

because of the unpleasantness of withdrawal, which

involves feelings of irritability, frustration, anger, anxiety,

insomnia, and depression. Continued smoking may lead to

far more dire circumstances, including lung cancer, heart

attacks, emphysema, high blood pressure, and ulcers.

Treatment

The first step on the road to recovery is recognition of the

problem, but often this process is complicated by a lack of

understanding about substance abuse and addiction or

denial. In these cases, the intervention of concerned

friends and family often prompts treatment.

Addiction is a chronic illness like heart disease, high

cholesterol or high blood pressure. People with these

chronic diseases are prone to relapse. Because substance

abuse affects many aspects of a person’s life, multiple

forms of treatment are often required. For most, a

combination of medication and individual or group therapy

is most effective. Medications are used to control drug

cravings and relieve severe symptoms of withdrawal.

Therapy can help addicted individuals understand their addiction.

Introducing our Newsletters:

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